Dentures, partial or full, have two parts: denture teeth and denture plate. Denture teeth are made from acrylic, resin, or porcelain. The base plate that holds the teeth together is resin or polymer. Sometimes, as in the case of a partial denture, the base requires a metal framework to be secured to the teeth.
You can get different types of dentures from your dentist. They cater to various dental needs. Based on what problems they solve, they can be called full dentures, partial dentures, overdentures, upper dentures, immediate dentures, snap-in dentures, implant-supported dentures, and many more. Full dentures are conventional dentures. Immediate dentures are also called temporary dentures.
But when it comes to choosing their material, the choice is limited.
Material for denture teeth
Denture teeth can be made from the following:
- Composite resin
Acrylic is a plastic material. It is moldable and can return to its original shape after being stressed or compressed. It can be a little bit springy.
At this moment, acrylic is the material that is commonly used for making full and partial dentures.
Acrylic can, however, give in to excessive stress. If your dentures break in half, you may understand that you have used them for a long time, and their acrylic material has become weak.
Moreover, if you have zirconia teeth opposite to your acrylic denture teeth, the acrylic may wear and chip.
Acrylic teeth can also stain easily. Denture cleansers can harm them.
You may have to replace your acrylic dentures every 5 to 10 years.
Also Read: Premium Dentures: What Are They?
Composite resin teeth can blend with your existing teeth easily. It is their aesthetic potential that they are used in cosmetic dentistry more and more.
According to Toxicology International, an official publication of the Society of Toxicology, the resin composite substitutes the silver-amalgam filling. Silver amalgam has a mixture of mercury, which is considered a health risk.
However, composite resin teeth can also be a health risk.
- Within a month or two, the water content in your saliva can penetrate your resin teeth and saturate them.
- Chewing exerts pressure on the resin material. Repetitive stress degrades the resin teeth causing cracks in them.
- Fluctuations in temperature within the mouth can have an irreversible impact on your denture teeth. This fluctuation occurs when you consume cold and hot items.
- What food and beverage you eat may impact your resin dentures. Acidic food items or sports drinks can damage your dentures.
- According to International Dental Journal, bacteria in your mouth may colonize the resin teeth and roughen their surface, thus compromising their durability. The journal recommends that your dentist evaluate your oral hygiene before recommending a specific denture material.
Porcelain teeth offer better biocompatibility and aestheticism than other denture materials. They can withstand high strength.
Porcelain-fused-to-metal, or metal ceramics, was a gold standard for dental restorations for a long time. Nowadays, all ceramics offers more potential as a material of choice.
Porcelain teeth can be reinforced by using the following material:
- Aluminum oxide
- Leucite. It forms directly from volcanic lava.
- Lithium disilicate. It is a glass ceramic and is used widely in dental restorations. They can last 15 years or longer.
- Zirconium oxide. It is hard and colorless. It contains metal atoms but is not a metal in itself. However, it is stronger than titanium.
Material for a denture plate
According to British Dental Journal, your denture plate can be made from the following material:
- Acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate)
- Metal alloys (cobalt-chromium)
The polymers can be nylon-based thermoplastic resins. They can also be polyether ether ketone or aryl ketone polymers. Aryl ketone is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic. It has excellent mechanical properties and is one of the high-performing composites.
When denture-base properties are reinforced with fiber-reinforced composite, they show superior flexural strength. The flexural strength of a material is its ability to withstand pressure. This characteristic of the material is important for the denture plate.
Cobalt-chromium, as the name suggests, is a metal alloy of cobalt and chromium. It is a biocompatible metal and corrosion-resistant. The allergic reaction to cobalt-chromium is very low among dental patients.
Which material should your choose for your denture teeth and denture plate?
You will probably choose acrylic as they are the most popular denture type and cheaper. But if you want durability, you may select porcelain teeth on an acrylic denture base.
It is a good idea to listen to your dentist’s recommendations. Choosing the cheaper material will cost you more in the long run and may not look natural in your mouth for a long time. Dental restoration is a significant investment that you will ever make. Do not compromise quality at any cost.
Also Read: Denture Care: 8 Easy Tips
Where to find a dentist to give you the best advice regarding what material to choose for your dentures?
Instead of going to a generalist, you need to find a specialist for your dentures. Your dentist may be a specialist in dental implants, but they may not be a specialist in dentures.
- Find a dentist that treats dental patients with dentures routinely.
- This dentist should be able to show you some printed or electronic documents of their previous denture work.
- The dentures they can provide should be of a very high standard. Discuss your needs openly with your dentist. Ask them where the dentures would be made if the lab has a good name in the industry.
- You want your dentures to fit your mouth correctly. Your dentist should not be satisfied with dentures that do not fit you 100%.
- Your relationship with your dentist is long-term. If they rush you to decide if they do not seem to care about you as a patient, and if there is noticeable negligence regarding serving you, find a new dentist who cares.
- British Dental Journal
- Wiley Online Library
- Toxicology International
- International Dental Journal
- Quintessence International
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